Joined: 19 Dec 2002
|Posted: Tue Jul 30, 2019 12:55 am Post subject: How to Make the Perfect Stuffed Pasta
|How to Make the Perfect Stuffed Pasta
Lessons for the best ravioli, tortellini, and everything else you fold out of pasta dough.
Saveur | Stacy Adimando
I'd always imagined learning to make tiny, perfect tortellini from an aging native of Bologna or mastering pillowy agnolotti through a long apprenticeship in an obscure Piedmontese village. But then I heard about Evan Funke and his pasta-centric restaurant Felix on Abbot Kinney Boulevard in Venice, with its pristine, glassed-in pasta laboratory, his arsenal of authentic tools, and his fiercely traditional, monklike dedication to the art and culture of handmade pasta. Here, I realized, was the burly, bearded, mattarello-wielding, sfoglia-rolling filled-pasta-making mentor I was looking for.
The mattarello is a massive, meter-long wooden pasta rolling pin typical of Emilia-Romagna. Funke got his in Bologna and within minutes of my arrival, he's deployed it to transform a springy ball of spinach dough into a sfoglia, or pasta sheet, as even, smooth, and soft as the felt on a pool table.
“Fuck your pasta machine” is the hashtag and life motto of obsessive chef Evan Funke, hand-rolling pasta in the laboratory of his L.A. restaurant, Felix.
Funke did not come about his pasta proficiency easily—his now nimble fingers, lightning-fast kneading speed, and masterful shaping skills were developed over 10 years of study under many of Italy's foremost traditional pasta makers (along with some of the best of America and Japan). He caught the pasta bug at Spago in Beverly Hills, where the head chef was from Bologna. After years of cooking there, he set out to apprentice in Emilia-Romagna. "Italy to me was like mother's love, instantly familiar and so comforting," he says. "As soon as I set foot in the country, all the French and Asian cooking techniques I had learned were out the window." Studying at La Vecchia Scuola Bolognese, a cooking school in Bologna, it took him over a thousand tries to roll out his first perfect sfoglia. "I still remember the day: February 14, 2008," he says with nostalgic pride. After three months of working 10 hours a day, six days a week, he was proficient in just a few of the filled pastas of the region. Since then, Funke has been traveling back and forth to Italy, studying old-school techniques from all over the country.
Funke says the pastas I’ve come here to learn are some of the most difficult to master. “I can teach a 6-year-old how to make cavatelli,” he says. “But stuffed pastas take attention and time.” How to tinker with dough hydration, meticulous shaping, maintaining even thickness, and keeping fillings contained—these come from patient practice and repetition. Our lessons happen in his pasta laboratory—the “labo,” as he calls it, a room that also serves as a live pasta-making theater during the restaurant’s dinner service. The chef has it set to a goose bump–raising 68 degrees and damp 67 percent humidity, constantly regulated by a small machine he imported from Japan. “Like making good bread, pasta is all math,” Funke says. But there is nothing mechanical about the way he treats his. His doughs have a living quality to them, forming tiny air bubbles like the early phases of a sourdough.
Funke demonstrates the way of the mattarello for the author.
Learning the art of filled pastas in the patient way of Funke pays off. After tasting his richly flavored doughs (sturdy and with bite, never soggy, gummy, or crunchy), and chomping through his stuffed pasta's impossibly symmetrical exteriors to release a warm gush of creamy filling, you'll never settle for just any random ravioli again.
5 Essential Filled-Pasta Lessons
Anybody can dollop some Cheese between sheets of dough and call it a raviolo. But the best stuffed pastas are made with care and pay tribute to tradition. Here are Evan Funke’s nonnegotiable tips to mastering smooth dough and flavorful fillings.
The perfect shape of these cazini? It’s all in the fingers.
1) Roll Your Own
Funke swears that hand-rolling sfoglie with a mattarello is the secret that differentiates dense, flat-tasting pastas from fluffy, tender ones. "Fuck your pasta machine" is his hashtag and life mantra, but he says it's not just braggadocio: "If you lovingly create a ball of light dough and smash it between a pasta machine's metal rollers, you're crushing everything in it and essentially degassing it. But if you take that ball and use the mattarello, you spread out the air pockets, creating a lighter waferlike dough." Roll the sheet of dough firmly at first, then more and more gently as you get a larger, thinner sfoglia. And remember to rotate it often, making sure it never sticks to your board.
2) Stay Hydrated
For a pasta that’s strong yet supple, hydration—the ratio of solids to liquids in a dough—is key. The flours you’re using, which vary by region in Italy, dictate how much water and additions like eggs and oil to add, but there’s no magic formula. “Pasta dough will behave differently every single day you make it, based on the age of your flour, your environment, and the weather,” says Funke. “Dough for filled pastas should feel supple and on the drier side, able to be pinched and stay sealed without water.”
It may take a while to incorporate the flour by kneading—15 minutes or more—but don’t skimp on time: You won’t know how hydrated your dough really is until kneading is through. Once you’re done, don’t mess with your hard-won hydration by dousing dough in large amounts of flour or covering it in a damp cloth. “When chefs throw semolina on top of a sticky or tacky dough, it ends up dry,” Funke says. Get it right the first time (using Funke’s recipes), then wrap the dough in plastic wrap and rest it—either at room temperature for flour and water doughs, or in the refrigerator for most others. One to two hours is good. A full day is best.
3) Don’t be Dense
To prevent textural irregularities like extra-thick or crunchy spots in the finished cooked pastas, Funke focuses on the “touch points”—the places where two pasta sheets must join together to seal in a filling. “When you make the folds on any stuffed pasta, you’re joining two single sheets together, which creates double thickness,” he explains. If you don’t pinch them back down to a single thickness, you’ll have crunchy or gummy bits when you cook.
4) Fine-Tune Your Fillings
Hidden underneath the wrappings of the dough lies a lot of the true finesse in filled pastas. “You want relatively dry, homogenous fillings,” Funke says, “and they should be highly seasoned so they taste good on their own.” Each should have a binder, be it bread crumbs, eggs, or cheese, and most ingredients should be cooked. “Raw ingredients tend to bleed out when they’re cooked—raw vegetables inside a filled pasta will probably turn into a sack of juice,” he says. A flimsy or wet filling isn’t just annoying to control and contain; it can also render a perfect dough soggy and unsealable.
5) Cook Consciously
“I always make at least one extra piece to test the timing of the cooking,” Funke says. Fill a pot with abundant water (preferably around 8 quarts), and season it, just until it tastes good on its own. Despite what you might have heard, Funke warns that “the water should never taste like the ocean,” since you’ll often want to use some of the starchy cooking water in a finished sauce. Have your sauce warmed and waiting in a large skillet or warm bowl: “Wait for the pasta to swim to the top, then use a spider tool or small handheld strainer to transfer it directly into the sauce.”
“The Italian mind-set and approach is really based in restraint,” Evan Funke says. “You’re looking for depth and richness through simplicity.” However, stuffed pastas are not the kind of thing you’re going to throw together between pouring cocktails and finishing the roast. Give yourself around four hours (including resting time for the dough) to tackle one of these traditional regional dishes.
The Maestro’s Tools
Evan Funke has built up a fearsome arsenal of pasta-making implements for shapes of all types. "You can find perfectly suitable pasta cutters in culinary stores here, but these are things I've gathered over 10 years in Parma, in Bologna, in small specialty shops and hardware stores," he says. "Hardware stores in Italy are very, very different." Funke walked us through the tools of the trade. —Sam Dean
Mattarello: “I use it to roll out sheets of pasta dough. It’s perfectly straight to 1/1000 of an inch. Before it’s milled the wood gets baked for 30 days at 90 degrees, so it gets almost petrified. I call this one the Mack Truck.”
Torchio: “I have a portrait of Thomas Jefferson hanging in my lab. He was a huge Italophile and traveled to Naples, where he was taken aback by the beauty and simplicity of this machine, which presses dough into pasta. I make pasta by hand, but Jefferson is kind of my excuse for using a machine like this sometimes.”
Taglia Ravioli: “These are spring-loaded on the inside so that when you press down, the ravioli is perfectly formed and sealed.”
Bench Brush: "The only Japanese piece here was a gift from my mentor Kosaku, who has a pasta laboratorio in Tokyo called Base."
Coltello di Mamma, “Mama’s Knife:” “A small knife for making orecchiette.”
Forchetta: “A fork, obviously—I use it for mixing dough.”
Raschietto: “Italian for bench scraper.”
Rotelle Tagliapasta: “Used for cutting pasta with different patterns.”
Taglia Tortellini: “These rotelle allow you to cut strips into a sheet of dough, then come across with a second pass to cut perfectly even squares for making tortellini.”
Gnocchi Boards: “These are used to roll and texture different kinds of gnocchi.”
Cavarola Board: “Typically from the Mezzogiorno region, this one’s made out of walnut and used for a pasta called strascinati. The name means ‘to drag,’ and you drag pieces of dough across the board, leaving indentations that grip sauce.”
Chitarra: “It means guitar, but it’s actually strung with piano wire. It’s traditionally made entirely out of wood, but this one is made in America, with aluminum components. This one lasts five times as long—sometimes tradition is the practice of bad habits.”
Coltello per Pasta: “This pasta knife was handmade for me by the daughter of my maestro Alessandra Spisni.”
Piccolo Mattarello: “This small rolling pin goes to the cavarola board—it’s what you’d use to roll the strascinati.”
Corzetti Stamps: “These stamps were hand-etched in Liguria by a man named Cesare. They imprint a fennel bush into corzetti, a coin-shaped pasta.”
Troccolaturo: “This brass roller is for cutting a pasta called troccoli, which is a lot like tagliatelle.”
Ferretto: “A metal rod used to make fusilli. This one is brass, but you also see people use a broken umbrella rib or a bicycle spoke.”
Pettine per Garganelli: “Pettine means comb—it's a ridged surface on which to roll garganelli with the bacchetta, or little stick.”
This post originally appeared on Saveur and was published September 18, 2017.
Joined: 27 Jan 2003
Location: Hong Kong
|Posted: Sat Oct 10, 2020 8:15 pm Post subject:
|The 10 Healthiest Subway Sandwiches You Should Be Buying
Stay fresh, fit and have a feast!
Shimal Bharadwaj /New York University
The crunchiness of Subway's bread, the melty cheese, and the unlimited array of toppings makes it a sandwich lover's dream. Unlike most fast food joints, Subway also advertises itself as being healthy with fresh fit options. Healthy fast food? Yep, it's a thing. Here's a list of the healthiest Subway sandwiches that don't skimp on flavor.
1. Veggie Delight
The Veggie Delight is the healthiest Subway sandwich of them all. With no meat, you have no choice but to load it up with a ton of veggies. At only 230 calories (without cheese), this sandwich is a steal.
2. Sweet Onion Chicken Teriyaki
The Sweet Onion Chicken Teriyaki is also on of the healthiest Subway sandwiches out there. Subway features teriyaki-glazed chicken in their fat-free sweet onion sauce. Altogether it's 269 calories with some veggies.
3. Oven Roast Chicken
Oven Chicken Roast is ideal for all the health nuts out there. It consists of only 320 calories on their 9 grain wheat bread but you could also try their honey and oat to mix it up a bit.
4. Rotisserie Style Chicken
The Rotisserie Chicken is one of the healthiest Subway sandwiches, with fresh chicken and crispy veggies on wheat bread. It's just 350 calories and 29 grams of protein.
5. Black Forest Ham
Go ham with the Black Forest Ham. It's fresh, full of flavor, and has 290 calories. I recommend adding a little honey mustard, which is low in calories and will give your salty sub a sweet twist.
6. Subway Club
For all those meat lovers out there, the Subway Club is a real treat. It is a combination of tender turkey breast, roast beef and black forest ham in one delectable sandwich for you to feast on. It's also just 310 calories.
7. Roast Beef
You can get buff with a Roast Beef sandwich by making it your go-to Subway order on the day you workout. This healthy six-inch sandwich has 290 calories and 6 grams of fat. Can it get any better?
8. Carved Turkey
If you cannot wait for Thanksgiving, go for a Carved Turkey Sandwich available for limited time. If you want to go even healthier, ditch the bread and have the salad version instead . You automatically reduce your carb intake by 40 grams.
9. Egg and cheese
What better way to start your morning than with a multigrain flatbread with egg-whites, cheese, spinach, and tomatoes? This 380-calorie sub will keep you going for the rest of your busy day.
10. Turkey Breast
The Turkey Breast sandwich is part of the Fresh Fit menu. With 280 calories and 18 grams of protein, this is a great choice if you're looking for a healthy lunch.
The next time you're at Subway and want to eat clean, order any of these healthy sandwiches for a flavorful, filling meal.
Joined: 27 Jan 2003
Location: Hong Kong
|Posted: Sat Oct 10, 2020 8:18 pm Post subject:
|20 Wild Subway Sandwiches From All Over The World
It's hard to understand why some of these sandwiches aren't available in the United States!
By Colin Leggett Nov 19, 2018
Fast food can get a little repetitive. Burgers, pizza, fried chicken, tacos, repeat. Then again, Subway has also become a staple of the fast food diet. It may not always be as hearty as a pizza or as desirable as a burger, but a Subway sandwich can be a pretty great meal, especially when it's loaded up with veggies and served with a bag of chips (or some of those amazing subway cookies, particularly the white chocolate macadamia nut). Just like McDonald's, Pizza Hut, and other fast food chains, Subway has locations all over the world, and just like those other fast food titans, it often includes dishes that are specific to the local culture on its menu.
Some of those international Subway sandwiches are really something else, too. It's actually hard to understand why some of them aren't available in the United States. Sure, there are some sandwiches that are so culturally specific that they might just not work, but there are others that are just fun sandwiches with no real connection to their market. They are just ideas that have been cooked up at these international Subway locations. And yet, somehow, these amazing sandwiches haven't made their way to the United States. It's a real shame, because some of these sandwiches look absolutely amazing, and like they would be a really satisfying meal. Hopefully one day we might get to try some of these sandwiches without taking an international flight. These are 20 wild Subway sandwiches from around the world.
20 Aloo Patty (India)
If you hit up a subway in India, you'll find more vegetarian options than you might see at an American location. This is most likely due to the fact that roughly 20% of the population in India eat a vegetarian diet. So what kind of different sandwiches can you find at Subway in India? For starters, there is the aloo patty sub. This sandwich is made with two seasoned potato patties, plus all the vegetables you want. This is basically like eating a hash brown sandwich, which a lot of us would consider a pretty great treat. After all, who doesn't want more carbs on their sandwich?
19 Barbecue Rib (Germany)
McDonald's may have the McRib, but Subway in Germany has the barbecue rib sub. Imagine being able to get the flavor of a McRib any time you want, only instead of being limited to pickles, onions, and a soggy hot dog bun, you could get it with any veggies you want on herb and cheese bread? That sounds like a winner in our books. It's a little bit strange that Subways in the United States haven't adopted this sandwich, considering that it would be a great way to capitalize on the periods when the McRib isn't available. After all, people go crazy for the McRib, so they'd probably like this sandwich even more.
18 Chicken Tikka (UK)
Chicken tikka is a popular dish in India, where it originated as small chunks of boneless chicken marinated in spices and yogurt and baked on skewers. Considering how popular food from India is in the UK, it only makes sense that Subway would adopt those flavors for a sandwich. The chicken tikka sub maintains the same tradition as the original dish, with chunks of chicken marinated in a spice blend and grilled. This would be a great sandwich to get if you wanted to explore the sort of cross-cultural culinary world of England, where recipes originating from India have had a large influence.
17 Corn and Peas (India)
Sometimes even for vegetarians, the veggie sub at Subway must get a little bit boring. After all, there are only so many times that you can have lettuce, tomato, and any variation of other vegetables on a loaf of bread before you start craving something different. Some people go for the falafel, but that can be a bit heavy. Too bad People in the United States can't pick up a corn and peas sub, a sandwich available at Subways in India. This sub is topped with a corn and pea salad, tossed with carrots in a mayo-like sauce. Top that with your favorite veggies, and this could be a real winner.
16 Raclette Cheese (France)
For people who aren't familiar with raclette, allow us to explain this absolutely heavenly cheese: it originates in France and is often melted right on the wheel then scraped onto your plate, where you can enjoy the cheesy, melty goodness. So, of course, Subway in France has utilized this delicious cheese in a sub, providing all the melty goodness of raclette on an inexpensive and delicious sandwich. That means if you ever find yourself in France, you don't have to head into a gourmet restaurant to try raclette for yourself. Just pop into Subway and order one of these bad boys.
15 Peri Peri Chicken (South Africa)
Everybody loves a spicy chicken sandwich, so why hasn't Subway come up with one yet? Actually, they have! The peri peri chicken sub, available at Subway locations in South Africa, uses spicy chicken prepared with traditional spices. Peri Peri chicken is known for its intense flavors and heat that slowly builds the more you eat. This kind of sandwich would do great in the United States, where people are always trying to test their mettle when it comes to spicy food. Also, you could nicely contrast that spice with blue cheese dressing or ranch, making a perfectly balanced sandwich with great flavor contrast.
14 Shrimp Avocado (Japan)
If there's one thing you have to expect at fast food places in Japan, it's the inclusion of shrimp on the menu. The same goes for Subway, where there are several sandwiches that incorporate shrimp. Chief among these is the avocado and shrimp sandwich. This tasty sub combines meaty shrimp and an avocado spread that is similar to guacamole. If you ask us, this sub sounds like it could be a real winner in the United States. After all, who doesn't like shrimp? Not only that, but the addition of avocado to anything these days is always an instant hit.
13 Skagenrora (Sweden)
While the tuna sub at Subway in the United States is not often the most popular choice (after all, that tuna salad never really looks all that appetizing sitting in a container on the counter), the skagenrora seems like it could be a much better choice. However, this sub is only available in Sweden, so you'd have to take a trip there to try this for yourself. The skagenrora sub is like the tuna salad, but instead of tuna, it uses a salad made with crab meat. This actually sounds like it could be a big hit in the states, particularly on the east coast. Especially if you threw some Old Bay seasoning on top.
12 Schnitzel and Slaw (Australia)
Now, this is a sandwich! Subways in Australia offer this sandwich during limited time promotions. That's a real shame because this sub would probably sell great year-round as a regular menu item. It combines the traditional flavor of schnitzel, a thin, breaded pork cutlet, with coleslaw, creating a contrast of flavors that work very well together. This sandwich would probably do really well in the United States, where everybody wants a hearty sandwich with breaded meat on it. This is the kind of thing that would be worth traveling halfway around the world. After a long plane trip, this sandwich would fill you up just right. Which is why Subway in Australia needs to seel it all the time!
11 Shrimp and Broccoli (Japan)
Once again, we return to Japan where Subways are serving all kinds of shrimp subs, including this one. Now, shrimp and broccoli may not sound as exciting or enticing as shrimp and avocado, but come on! This sub would be super healthy, and the combination of flavors would most likely provide a unique tasting experience. Although we have to admit, this would probably not be a huge hit in the United States. While people like to go to Subway . to get more vegetables in their diet (a questionable dietary tactic if ever there was one), they probably don't want broccoli shoehorned in there.
10 Smoked Chicken and Cream Cheese (Brazil)
This sandwich, available at subways in Brazil, does something very interesting: it takes a more traditional sandwich topping (in this case, chicken salad) and turns it on its head by using cream cheese instead of mayo. We have to admit, we're intrigued. While there are people out there that would never abandon mayo as their preferred chicken salad dressing, the thought of tangy cream cheese being used as the base is somewhat enticing. After all, combining the creamy, cheesy flavor with something as bold as smoked chicken would really make a nice contrast of flavors. Considering there isn't even a chicken salad sub in the United States, this could be a great sandwich to test out in the marketplace.
9 Fiesta Mexicana (Poland)
Why is it that you would have to travel to Poland to get something that looks as amazing as this fiesta Mexicana sandwich? Look at that thing! It combines guacamole with seasoned chicken and any veggies you want to create a delicious hybrid of burrito and sandwich. How this thing hasn't been tested in the United States is beyond us, as this sandwich could easily be a best seller. It has what everyone wants: guacamole, spicy chicken, and a fun name! You know that anything that has the word "fiesta" in it is probably going to be a good time, so this sandwich would probably be like a party in your mouth.
8 Sausage Sub (China)
Is a hot dog a sandwich? It's a question that's taken the internet by storm, and the debate is ongoing. However, the sausage sub available at Subways in China seems to split the difference. How does it do that? By literally splitting the sausage down the middle, making it flatter so it can be put on a subway bun. This would be a pretty great meal, considering how hearty and delicious that sausage looks, although it might provoke even stronger arguments from both sides of whether this kind of thing can even be considered a sandwich of if it's more just a "wrong hot dog." Either way, it's probably delicious.
7 Subway Taco (Japan)
Most people who want a taco are obviously going to head over to Taco Bell. Why wouldn't they? The word 'taco' is right in the name! But what if you could get a taco somewhere else? Maybe somewhere you wouldn't expect? That's exactly the case at Subway in Japan, where you can get the Subway taco. This taco style sandwich utilizes the Subway flatbread and spicy taco-style beef to create something that is a hybrid of sandwich and taco. You really get the best of both worlds with the Subway taco. The taste of spicy beef, plus the soft bready texture of a Subway flatbread. This would be a whole new flavor experience for people, and one that would definitely be worth trying.
6 Bacon, Potato, and Anchovy Sauce (Japan)
You may think you've seen some strange flavor combinations in your life, but brace yourself, because this one might just blow you away. This sub, sold in Japan combines the flavors of bacon, mashed potatoes (makes sense so far), and anchovy sauce? Well, that came out of nowhere. Forgive us for thinking that anchovy sauce might be just a little too much on a sandwich like this one. Then again, anchovies are often used to enhance other flavors. They can actually bring a lot of umami to a dish, making them a secret weapon in many different types of cuisine. You know what? This sandwich might be worth trying, just to see how all these flavors work together.
5 Shortcut Bacon, Poached Egg, and Cheese (Australia)
No, shortcut bacon isn't bacon that doesn't take as long to make. It's actually a very common breakfast meat in Australia, where you can get it on a breakfast sandwich from subway along with poached eggs and cheese. This sandwich is actually a refreshing change to all of the breakfast sandwiches people might be used to. After all, if you get a breakfast sandwich anywhere, you're most likely getting fried eggs, or maybe scrambled (although the scrambled eggs are typically powdered). So poached eggs are actually a nice change of pace. Add in shortcut bacon, which is a thinner sliced bacon, cut from the loin rather than the belly.
4 Chicken Fajita (Germany)
Why wouldn't a chicken fajita sub be available in America? People love chicken, they love fajitas, so why wouldn't this sandwich be a huge hit? We may never know, but the chicken fajita sub is a big hit at Subways in Germany. This sandwich is topped with chicken coated with classic fajita spices. It's a little bit strange that this sub would be available in Germany, and not the schnitzel and slaw sandwich mentioned above. However, maybe the people of Germany like to get things that are a little different at Subway, leaving the traditional foods for other restaurants. Either way, this sandwich seems like it would be delicious.
3 Paneer Tikka (India)
Everybody loves cheese, right? Well, imagine if you could get a Subway sandwich that was made almost entirely out of cheese? We're not even talking about those thin triangles of white cheddar, either. We're talking about the paneer tikka sub, available at Subways in India. This sandwich is topped with paneer, a traditional cheese in India that is often served in curries due to its high melting point. The paneer is seasoned with spices and piled high on a bun with veggies. This is the kind of sandwich that any cheese lover would want to try. Paneer is also very high in protein, so this would also be a great post-workout sub.
2 Chicken Parm (Mexico)
How is it fair that the chicken parm sub, a sandwich that by all means should be available in the USA, is only available in Mexico? This sandwich from Subway has everything you'd expect a chicken parm sandwich to have: breaded chicken, marinara, mozzarella, and parmesan cheese. This is the kind of thing that would sell like hotcakes in the United States, so it's a little bit strange that Subway hasn't made the decision to start carrying it in the US market. Well, that just means that you have one more culinary stop to make on your next trip south of the border.
1 Matambrito (Argentina)
One thing that Subway, like other fast food chains, likes to do is make sandwiches based off of local flavors and dishes. Subway in Argentina is no exception to the rule, as they have made the matambrito sub. This impressive sandwich is made with a deep-fried pork patty and barbecue sauce, which sound like it would be right at home in the United States. After all, who doesn't love the sound of fried pork on a bun? This sandwich is probably really hearty and filling, considering the great looking cut of meat that adorns it. Unfortunately, you'd have to travel to Argentina to try one.
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